Textile dyeing, printing and processing are vitally important
sectors for the survival of textile industry
by Dr. Noor Ahmed Memon, Dean KASBIT / Associate Editor Pakistan Textile Journal.

The textile processing is one of the value added, export-oriented and labour- intensive sectors of Pakistan. This sector is considered as the backbone of Pakistan economy as it is the most important industrial sector of Pakistan in terms of export and labour force employment. Textile and its made-ups account for more than 58% of the total exports from the country, which contributed to the US$ 12.1 billion in the year 2015-16.

Around 1,150 textile processing units are currently working in and around Faisalabad, Gujranwala, Lahore and Karachi. About 400 of these units are members of APTPMA, the principal trade body representing the textile processing  sector. Around 37 composite units are members of APTMA, All Pakistan Textile Mills Association that are large integrated units.

Imports of textile finishing machines can be seen in Table 1.

Table 1: Import of Textile Finishing Machines
                                                                                        Quantity: Numbers
                                                                                          Value: Rs. in Million

Machines 2015-2016 2014-2015
Quantity Value Quantity Value
 Drying Machines. 368 389 1,497 478
 Bleaching Machines 3 297 9 690
 Dyeing Machines. 309 1,587 197 993
 Coating or Laminating Machines. 1,310 212 1,282 201
 Dressing Finishing Machines. 64 291 60 84
 Mercerizing Machines. 23 212 156 931
 Stentering Machines. 121 981 453 691
 Other Drying and finishing Machines. 1,161 2,515 1,162 1,724

 Total

3,359 6,484 4,816 5,792
   Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.

While many knit sector units in the country are now equipped with modern machinery and have their own finishing facilities, most of the knit processing units are small-scale units with traditional dyeing facilities.

There are 42 denim manufacturers with state of the art denim finishing machines and technology installed at their facilities.

About 200 plus home textile manufacturers from Pakistan participate in Heimtextil exhibition in Frankfurt every year representing some of the largest integrated home textile manufacturers including bed linen and towels.

The integrated units process complete finishing facilities i.e. bleaching mercerising, dyeing, calendaring and printing. They produce their own fabrics and after finishing market or export them under their own brand names as either home textiles or fashion fabrics. Some of these units are large and also backwards integrated with their own yarn or fabrics production that is processed in their facilities as home textiles or fashion fabrics.

They also occasionally outsource finishing facilities to those processors who would then finish the woven or knitted fabrics or yarn on commission.  These units may not have complete finishing facilities. They are engaged in bleaching and dyeing or printing and perform more work on the job order basis. They also procure cloth from the market sometimes and sell it under their own brand names after processing.

Drive towards eco-friendly processing

The consumers in the developed countries are now concerned about the green activities and choose products, which are non-toxic and cause no harm to both the humans and the environment. This trend for eco-friendly products has been extended to textile and apparel products, particularly those products which directly come into contact with the skin for prolonged periods. The requirements for socially responsible production and processing are increasing every day.

 The dyeing printing and finishing sector have seen remarkable improvements in textile technology over the years, to meet these increasingly stringent requirements of lower use of chemicals, water and energy. Today‚Äôs finishing machines provide economical and profitable production while meeting all stringent requirements.

Import of dyes and pigments

The import of various dyes and pigments in Pakistan increased from Rs 21.45 billion in 2014-15 to Rs 22.70 billion in 2015-16. Import of dyes and pigments in Pakistan is given in Table 2.

Table 2: Import of Dyes and Pigments in Pakistan
                                                                                        Quantity in Tonnes
                                                                                          Value: Rs. in Million

Machines

2015-2016

2014-2015

Quantity

Value

Quantity

Value

 Disperse Dyes.

10,457

5,074

7,257

2,294

 Acid Dyes Premetalise.

4,301

1,591

3,775

1,685

 Basic Dyes.

2,714

690

2,100

838

 Direct Dyes.

2,097

419

2,398

432

 Vat Dyes indigo blue.

6,167

2,569

4,799

2,115

 Other Vat Dyes.

567

1,071

493

892

 Reactive Colors

19,281

8,657

16,375

9,262

 Pigments Preparation.

51,162

3,006

4,175

2,604

 Sulphur Dyes.

15,718

1,412

6,923

1,121

 Other synthetic Dyes.

291

216

290

205

 Total

112,755

22,705

48,585

21,448

   Source: Pakistan Bureau of Statistics.

Import of organic chemicals

With increasing global awareness regarding the issues of environment and pollution, improved environmental performance has become a major factor in the dynamics of the world markets, and successful businesses around the globe are striving to achieve the goals of responsible environmental behaviour.

Table 3: Import of Organic
Chemicals in Pakistan

Year

Value (US $ Million)
2011-12 2,149
2012-13 2,016
2013-14 1,864
2014-15 1,997
2015-16 2,216

 Source: State Bank of Pakistan-Annual Report 2015-16

To enhance and sustain the textile exports of Pakistan it is essential to address the associated environmental problems on urgent basis.  Import of various organic chemicals in Pakistan increased from US$ 1.86 billion in 2013-14 to US$ 2.22 billion in 2015-16, thus showing an average increase of 6% per annum. Import of organic chemicals in Pakistan is given in Table 3.
 

 
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